SQLite is a lightweight, open source, cross-platform, and freely distributed database application. An SQLite database is stored as an ordinary file on disk, making it easy to manage and transport. Among other uses, SQLite databases can be a convenient way to store tabular scientific data in a relational, SQL-compliant structure without introducing the complexities of other relational database management systems (RDBMS). Moreover, SQLite data can be easily accessed within open-source analytical environments such as R (via the RSQLite package) and GRASS. For general information on suggested uses of SQLite, see here.
As of 11-Jun-2012, the latest release is SQLite 3.7.13.
Note that sqlite3 is the standard command line program for creating and interacting with SQLite databases. Binary installers for all platforms (Windows, Mac OSX, and Linux) are available here. However, Ubuntu users may prefer to install directly from the Universe repository:
sudo apt-get install sqlite3
In addition, sqlitebrowser is a simple, open source, cross-platform graphical SQLite browser/editor. Documentation and downloads are available here.